Centriole assembly and the role of Mps1: defensible or dispensable?
© Pike and Fisk; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Received: 21 February 2011
Accepted: 14 April 2011
Published: 14 April 2011
The Mps1 protein kinase is an intriguing and controversial player in centriole assembly. Originally shown to control duplication of the budding yeast spindle pole body, Mps1 is present in eukaryotes from yeast to humans, the nematode C. elegans being a notable exception, and has also been shown to regulate the spindle checkpoint and an increasing number of cellular functions relating to genomic stability. While its function in the spindle checkpoint appears to be both universally conserved and essential in most organisms, conservation of its originally described function in spindle pole duplication has proven controversial, and it is less clear whether Mps1 is essential for centrosome duplication outside of budding yeast. Recent studies of Mps1 have identified at least two distinct functions for Mps1 in centriole assembly, while simultaneously supporting the notion that Mps1 is dispensable for the process. However, the fact that at least one centrosomal substrate of Mps1 is conserved from yeast to humans down to the phosphorylation site, combined with evidence demonstrating the exquisite control exerted over centrosomal Mps1 levels suggest that the notion of being essential may not be the most important of distinctions.
I. The Centrosome
In proliferating cells, organization of a bipolar mitotic spindle is facilitated by the presence of two mature centrosomes, each of which contains a pair of centrioles. Accordingly, the single centrosome that proliferating cells inherit must be precisely duplicated exactly once prior to mitosis . The proper structure and function of centrosomes is dependent upon the strict doubling of existing centrioles , making the molecular mechanisms underlying the centriole assembly cycle of particular importance in the maintenance of genomic integrity.
It was previously thought that mother centrioles serve as a template for the assembly of procentrioles, in analogy to DNA replication. This has largely been disproven , and perhaps a more accurate description is that a centriolar template is assembled at a site adjacent to an existing centriole. In worms this template is a central tube formed by the SAS5/SAS6 complex , while in vertebrates and many other organisms it is a structure called the cartwheel ; both structures serve as a platform around which procentrioles are assembled, and Sas-6 forms the central hub responsible for nine-fold symmetry . Once assembled, procentrioles undergo elongation through S and G2, but remain attached to the proximal end of their mother until mitosis, when they become physically disengaged . Centriole assembly would thus appear to be a modular process, wherein centrioles are built from the bottom up (Figure 1); existing centrioles provide a surface for the assembly of a cartwheel, which serves as platform onto which successive modules are assembled in a proximal to distal fashion. In support of this modular nature of centriole assembly, both hPoc5 and Cetn2 appear to be dispensable for the initiation of centriole assembly, but depletion of hPoc5 leads to production of centrioles that lack distal elements , and overexpression of Cetn2 can organize a subset of distal centriole proteins at sites other than cartwheels . Two of the key players in this core centriole assembly pathway, Plk4 [40–42] and hSas6  are regulated by degradation. The result of this regulation is that hSas6 can only be assembled into procentrioles once per cell cycle, and centriolar hSas6 is degraded during mitosis. As a consequence, while cells have either two (G1) or four (S, G2, M) centrioles, they have zero (G1 or M) or two (S and G2) hSas6 foci.
The presence of extra centrosomes leads to the formation of extra spindle poles and multipolar spindles . These extra centrosomes perturb the proper connection of chromosomes to opposite spindle poles, resulting in chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy, even when the extra centrosomes cluster to produce pseudo-bipolar spindles [43, 44]. Indeed, excess centrosomes have recently been shown to generate aneuploidy, and genetic instability driven by the presence of extra centrosomes is thought to be an early event in prostate and breast tumor progression [43–46]. The exact mechanisms responsible for restricting centrosome duplication remain to be elucidated, but overexpression of Cep76 can suppress centrosome re-duplication , while overexpression of several centriole assembly factors such Mps1 [31, 47], Plk4 , hSas6 , or Cetn2  can generate extra centrioles, indicating the importance of the strict regulation of centriole assembly factors throughout the cell cycle. This review aims to address recent advances in our understanding of the role of Mps1 in centriole assembly, as well as the controversy surrounding the function of centrosomal Mps1, and the future challenges for its understanding.
II. An Introduction to Mps1
Mps1, the p53 of the cytoskeleton?
Mps1 is a dual specificity protein kinase conserved from yeast to mammals . Originally identified for its role in spindle pole body (SPB) duplication in budding yeast, Mps1 was named for the phenotype observed in mutant cells, which fail in SPB duplication and form M onop olar s pindles upon entering mitosis . Mps1 was subsequently shown to regulate the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) [50, 51], and has since been found to function in a wide range of cellular processes in diverse organisms including hypoxia-induced mitotic arrest  and the meiotic assembly checkpoint in flies , and tissue regeneration in fish . In human cells reported hMps1 functions include centrosome duplication [28–32], the SAC , SMAD signaling , the p53-dependent post-mitotic checkpoint , the Chk2-dependent DNA damage response , and cytokinesis . The most recently documented function for Mps1 ties it to the actin cytoskeleton through a newly identified binding partner Mip1, a novel component of the actin cytoskeleton that regulates the interaction of the mitotic spindle with the cell cortex . While each of its described functions is relevant to the control of genomic integrity, it is not clear to what extent each function of Mps1 is conserved. Regarding its originally defined functions from yeast, there is wide agreement that the SAC function of Mps1 is universally conserved among eukaryotes  but reports differ regarding a role for Mps1 at centrosomes [30, 32, 60, 61]. Though the list of Mps1 functions continues to expand, this review will concentrate on its controversial role in centrosome duplication.
From yeast to house apes
Mps1, of mice and men
The first functional studies of vertebrate Mps1 examined the mouse  and frog  enzymes. Both endogenous mMps1 and GFP-mMps1 localized to centrosomes and kinetochores in NIH 3T3 cells . Overexpression of mMps1 caused centrosome re-duplication, while the catalytically inactive kinase dead (KD) version mMps1-KD blocked centrosome duplication, suggesting that mMps1 regulated centrosome duplication . Concurrently, the X. laevis Mps1 was shown to be present at kinetochores where it is required for SAC function . Accordingly, these initial studies supported the idea that the functions of Mps1 described in yeast were conserved in vertebrates. However, the first functional study of hMps1 cast doubt on this suggestion, as it failed to find hMps1 at centrosomes, or to reveal any defect in centrosome duplication after the overexpression of hMps1 (hMps1 or hMps1KD) or its siRNA-mediated depletion . Rather, the only phenotype reported in that study was the failure of hMps1-depleted cells to arrest in mitosis in response to the microtubule poison nocodazole .
There were important experimental differences between the original mMps1 and hMps1 studies, and when used with timing and expression levels similar to the mMps1 study, hMps1KD and wild type hMps1 were subsequently shown to attenuate centrosome duplication and accelerate centrosome re-duplication, respectively, in human cells [30, 32]. In addition, other groups have subsequently observed transgenic hMps1 at centrosomes [30, 68], and at least four hMps1 antibodies (three different rabbit polyclonal, and one mouse monoclonal) have subsequently been shown to stain centrosomes [29, 32, 68, 69] (although the vast majority of hMps1 antibodies do not). Notably, a recent study that identified activating phosphorylation sites within hMps1 not only found active Mps1 at centrosomes, but also showed that it interacts with γ-tubulin . Moreover, the siRNA-mediated depletion of hMps1 can attenuate centrosome duplication . Titration of hMps1-specific siRNAs suggested that centrosome duplication requires significantly less Mps1 than the SAC, and that not even mitotic catastrophe was indicative of complete hMps1 depletion . Indeed, this finding is consistent with the very low levels of hMps1 at G1/S observed by Hogg et al  (Figure 2). Interestingly, these initial functional studies of hMps1 highlighted a difference between mouse and human cells; while moderate overexpression of wild type Mps1 is sufficient to drive centrosome re-duplication in mouse cells , even gross overexpression of wild type Mps1 is not sufficient do so in human cells [32, 61], a difference that is due to cell type and not the source of enzyme (unpublished observations). Our subsequent explorations have suggested that this difference is due to the regulation of Cdk2 activity between mice and humans, although this has not been explicitly tested.
III. Exquisite control over centrosomal Mps1 levels
The G1 to S transition in vertebrate cells marks "the point of no return" in the cell cycle, beyond which the cell is committed to division, and Hogg et al. showed a dramatic peak of hMps1 kinase activity at G1/S with little associated change in total protein levels  (Figure 2). This suggests that the function of Mps1 in centrosome duplication is controlled by a posttranslational mechanism, and the initial mMps1 study showed that Cdk2 suppresses the proteasome-mediated degradation of mMps1 . Overexpression of the Cdk2 partner cyclin A causes centrosome reduplication in human cells , and further studies suggested that cyclin A-associated Cdk2 (Cdk2/A) specifically regulates the degradation of a centrosomal pool of hMps1; while cyclin A overexpression increased the level of hMps1 at centrosomes by ~2.5-fold, modulation of Cdk2 or the proteasome had little effect on the whole cell levels of Mps1 . Amino acids 420-507 that are encoded by hMPS1 exons 12 and 13 contain an M ps1 D egradation S ignal (MDS, see Figure 2). The MDS is responsible for the proteasome-dependent removal of hMps1 from centrosomes in the absence of Cdk2 activity, and a single site within the MDS, T468, is phosphorylated by Cdk2/A . The non-phosphorylatable GFP-hMps1T468A can accumulate in the cytoplasm but is constitutively removed from centrosomes in a proteasome-dependent manner . GFP-hMps1T468A cannot substitute for the function of endogenous hMps1 in centrosome duplication, demonstrating that it is the centrosomal pool of hMps1 that is relevant to its function in centrosome duplication . In contrast, the GFP-hMps1T468D and GFP-hMps1T468E mutants that mimic T468 phosphorylation, and GFP-hMps1Δ12/13 that lacks the MDS, can accumulate at centrosomes in the absence of Cdk2 activity, and cause centrosome re-duplication  in all human cells thus far tested , even at expression levels that are roughly two-fold lower than that of endogenous hMps1 . Accordingly, in human cells the failure of wild type hMps1 to cause centrosome re-duplication appears to be the consequence of its efficient proteasome-dependent removal from centrosomes, but preventing this removal is sufficient to cause centrosome re-duplication [29, 31, 47]. Moreover, while cyclin A-dependent centrosome re-duplication requires hMps1, that caused by hMps1Δ12/13, hMps1T468D, or hMps1T468E no longer requires cyclin A , suggesting that cyclin A promotes centrosome re-duplication by suppressing the degradation of hMps1 at centrosomes.
The observation that very modest changes in centrosomal hMps1 can cause centrosome re-duplication suggests that defects in the control of hMps1 degradation might contribute to centrosome abnormalities in human tumors. In fact, hMps1 is not appropriately degraded in response to the Cdk2 inhibitor roscovitine in a variety of tumor-derived cells . Transgenic hMps1 can be degraded appropriately in one such cell type, the U2OS osteosarcoma cell line well known to undergo centrosome re-duplication, suggesting that at least in these cells the defect is intrinsic to endogenous hMps1. While no hMPS1 coding mutations were found in U2OS cells, the hMPS1Δ12/13 mRNA lacking exons 12 and 13, which generates the internally truncated hMps1Δ12/13 protein lacking amino acids 420-507 discussed above, was cloned by RT-PCR amplification of hMPS1 mRNAs from U2OS cells . However, the 21NT mammary carcinoma cell line fails to degrade both endogenous and transgenic hMps1, and GFP-hMps1T468A can accelerate centrosome re-duplication in 21NT cells, suggesting that defects in hMps1 degradation can also be caused by deficiencies in the factors that regulate its degradation . In fact, we have recently shown that hMps1 degradation is controlled by a potential tumor suppressor, Ornithine Decarboxylase Antizyme (OAZ, or Antizyme) . Together, these studies demonstrate that cells normally exercise exquisite control over centrosomal Mps1, and that even modest changes in the centrosomal pool of Mps1 are sufficient to break the control of centrosome duplication to generate excess centrioles.
What is the MDS?
The MDS contains no known targeting motifs for either the Skp/Cullin/F-box (SCF) or Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3-ubiquitin ligases, and its only obvious similarity is to other vertebrate Mps1 proteins , suggesting that the MDS controls centrosomal Mps1 through a mechanism independent of typical SCF or APC/C degradation pathways. OAZ is a potential tumor suppressor that targets a handful of known substrates for ubiquitin-independent proteasome-mediated degradation . For example, OAZ regulates polyamine biosynthesis by binding to and targeting Ornithine decarboxylase to the proteasome for degradation in a ubiquitin-independent manner . Mangold et al. showed that OAZ and its inhibitor (Antizyme Inhibitor, or AZI) are found at centrosomes, and that OAZ activity suppresses centrosome re-duplication; increased OAZ activity and/or levels suppressed centrosome re-duplication, while reducing OAZ led to centrosome amplification . Based on this data Mangold et al. hypothesized that OAZ promoted the degradation of a centrosomal substrate whose continued presence at centrosomes promoted centrosome re-duplication . The phenotypes described by Mangold et al. could be easily explained if that substrate were hMps1, making OAZ a very attractive candidate for mediating the MDS-dependent removal of hMps1 from centrosomes. Indeed, OAZ binds to hMps1 through the MDS (Figure 2), regulating centrosomal hMps1 levels in a proteasome-dependent manner, and antagonizing hMps1-dependent centrosome re-duplication in a manner that is attenuated by T468 phosphorylation .
Is the MDS the only control over centrosomal Mps1?
Given the multiple functions of Mps1, it seems likely that it might be controlled by multiple mechanisms. Indeed, yeast Mps1 has been shown to be a substrate of the APC/C, and mutual antagonism between Mps1 and the APC/C is of central importance to proper activation and silencing of the SAC in yeast . Moreover, a recent study by Cui et al. has shown that hMps1 is a ubiquitinated protein, and that both Cdc20 and Cdh1 promote the APC/C-dependent degradation of hMps1 during mitosis and G1, respectively . Interestingly, Cui et al. found that mutation of the single D-box present in the N-terminus of hMps1 (amino acids 256-263, see Figure 2) not only led to increased hMps1 levels, but also caused centrosome amplification . While they did not characterize the mechanism of centrosome amplification, it is tempting to speculate that increasing the cytoplasmic pool of hMps1 indirectly increased the centrosomal pool as well, leading to centrosome re-duplication. Together, this suggests that two mechanisms cooperate to control the function of hMps1 in centrosome duplication (Figure 2); first, APC/C-mediated proteolysis acts on hMps1 through its D-box as cells exit mitosis and enter G1 in order to reduce the cytoplasmic pool of hMps1  (which is roughly 5-10 fold higher during the SAC ), and second, OAZ-mediated proteolysis acts on hMps1 through its MDS to keep centrosomal hMps1 levels low until Cdk2 activity is sufficiently high to launch the early events of centrosome duplication. Once centrosomes have duplicated, OAZ again acts through the MDS to reduce centrosomal levels and suppress centrosome re-duplication [29, 73].
IV. Recent studies identify multiple centrosomal functions for hMps1
OAZ control of Mps1 reveals a role for Mps1 in procentriole assembly
Analysis of the Mps1 substrate Cetn2 reveals multiple Mps1 functions
The observation that non-degradable hMps1 proteins cause centriole overproduction  even at very modest expression levels  suggests that sustained phosphorylation of some set of centriole proteins by hMps1 leads to excess centriole assembly. A second study identifying the centriolar protein Cetn2 as one such hMps1 substrate provided additional evidence for an early function for hMps1, and also suggested at least one additional function for hMps1 in centriole assembly . Three in vitro sites of hMps1 phosphorylation were identified in Cetn2, and each was shown to be important for the control of centriole number (although in vivo phosphorylation at these sites was not demonstrated) . Interestingly, a role for Cetn2 in centriole assembly has also been controversial. The first siRNA-mediated depletion of Cetn2 suggested that it was essential for centriole assembly in HeLa cells, and while there was a dearth of centriolar markers available for analysis at the time, electron microscopy showed an increase of cells with fewer than expected centrioles . In contrast, subsequent studies found that co-depletion of Cetn2 and Cetn3 had no affect on Plk4-mediated centriole overproduction , and that depletion of Cetn2 alone had no affect on recruitment of hSas6 to centrioles . Our experiments support the suggestion that while hMps1 phosphorylation sites in Cetn2 enhance the rate of centriole assembly, at least in HeLa cells Cetn2 is dispensable for the canonical centriole assembly pathway . However, the presence of Cetn2 increases the rate of centriole assembly (as judged by CP110 recruitment), and this function of Cetn2 requires the major site of in vitro hMps1 phosphorylation, T118 . Moreover, Cetn2 is required for the maturation of excess centrioles produced in cells expressing hMps1Δ12/13 . Interestingly, we found that even in the absence of Cetn2 expression of hMps1Δ12/13 led to the assembly of excess hSas6 containing structures, but that these structures could not recruit pericentriolar material in the absence of Cetn2 . The observation that attenuation of hMps1 retards hSas6 assembly in the canonical centriole assembly cycle , while hMps1Δ12/13 promotes the assembly of excess hSas6 containing structures  further supports the suggested role for hMps1 in procentriole assembly. Moreover, this data also suggests that Cetn2 cannot be the only Mps1 substrate whose phosphorylation is critical for centriole overproduction. Regardless, taken together the OAZ and Cetn2 studies suggest that Mps1 has at least two functions in centriole assembly (Figure 3). In one function, mediated by as yet unidentified substrate(s), hMps1 promotes the remodeling of a single hSas6-containing precursor into cartwheels adjacent to each existing centriole. In a second function, hMps1 promotes the Cetn2-dependent maturation of the resulting procentrioles.
V. But is Mps1 essential?
Despite observations with Cetn2 and OAZ that suggest centrosomal functions for hMps1, several recent studies using chemical genetics [79–81] or small molecule inhibitors [60, 82–84] have lent support to the suggestion that hMps1 is not essential for centrosome duplication. In two of the chemical genetics studies, cell lines that depend solely on an analog-sensitive (as) version of hMps1 (hMps1-as, engineered to be sensitive to inhibition by bulky ATP analogs) were constructed by expressing an RNAi-resistant version of hMps1-as together with an hMps1-specific shRNA [80, 81]. In a third chemical genetics study hMps1-as was expressed using retroviral vectors in cells harboring a deletion at the endogenous hMps1 locus constructed using Adeno-Associated Viral vectors . Although two of these studies did not mention centrosomes, Tighe et al. comment that they observed no centrosomal defects . Several small molecule inhibitors of hMps1 have also been reported, and while they all perturb mitosis, those studies that examined centrosomes similarly reported that hMps1 inhibition had no consequence for centrosome duplication [60, 83, 84].
Regardless, there is now a preponderance of evidence to suggest that hMps1 is dispensable for centriole assembly. Even some aspects of our own data on Cetn2 support this suggestion. Although hMps1 has Cetn2-independent functions in centriole assembly , the identification of a non-essential substrate for hMps1 suggests that at least one of its functions might be dispensable. Moreover, the data we used to conclude that Cetn2 is dispensable for centriole assembly  was very similar to that used to reach the opposite conclusion for hMps1 . In our first study of hMps1, we assessed centriole number as HeLa cells that had been enriched in G1 by serum starvation entered S-phase after re-addition of serum (HeLa cells do not arrest in response to serum starvation, but rather grow slowly and accumulate in G1). Using a single time point eight hours after the addition of serum and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), we observed that hMps1 depletion led to a large increase in the percentage of cells that had entered S-phase during the release period but had just two centrioles, and concluded that hMps1 was required for centrosome duplication . In our Cetn2 study we measured centriole number in BrdU positive cells form unstarved HeLa cultures after a 4 hr BrdU pulse, and found that Cetn2-depletion caused a two-fold increase in the number of S-phase cells that had just two centrioles . However, we also included a chase period in order to determine the fate of the centrioles that had not duplicated during the initial BrdU pulse. We found that after a four hour chase period the percentage of Cetn2-depleted cells with two centrioles dropped to that seen in controls , suggesting that centriole assembly is initially delayed in the absence of Cetn2, but is ultimately completed. While there are important differences between these two approaches (starved vs unstarved cells, long labeling vs pulse chase), they are similar enough to prompt us to consider whether our original data with hMps1 might also reflect a delay. Accordingly, it still remains unclear whether hMps1 is essential for centriole assembly, and it will ultimately require a detailed comparison of the depletion/inhibition of hMps1 with the depletion of other essential (e.g. Plk4) and non-essential factors (e.g. Cetn2) under identical experimental conditions to resolve the issue.
Do we even care if hMps1 is essential?
If hMps1 has no role in centrosome duplication, its conservation is somewhat hard to explain, particularly given that phosphorylation of centrins is conserved down the actual phosphorylation site; yeast Mps1p phosphorylates Cdc31p at T110 , which is analogous to the T118 residue found to be the major hMps1 phosphorylation site within Cetn2 . If hMps1 has no role in centrosome duplication it is also hard to understand why cells would exert so much control over the centrosomal levels of hMps1, and more importantly why subtle changes in centrosomal hMps1 levels would lead to centrosome re-duplication [28, 29, 31, 47]. Therefore, it seems clear that hMps1 plays some role in centriole assembly, regardless of whether it is essential for the process. Perhaps hMps1 takes on different importance in different cellular contexts. Not only did our recent work show that Centrins 1, 2, and 3 are not functionally equivalent, but it also showed that Cetn2 has cell type specific effects . Perhaps hMps1 has similar cell type specificity, and is not essential for centriole assembly in the commonly used cell lines. Cep76 also exhibits cell type specific function , suggesting that the requirements for centriole assembly may vary considerably according to cell type. It is also possible that hMps1 plays a more important role at some point in development, but that tumor cells re-activate multiple pathways for centriole assembly such that it becomes dispensable.
Another possibility is that Mps1 may regulate the fidelity of centriole assembly or transmission. Depletion of the T. thermophila TtCEN1 leads to the progressive loss of basal bodies (structures analogous to centrioles), and those that remain are deteriorated, suggesting that TtCEN1 is required not just for assembly but also for the maintenance of basal bodies . A similar phenotype was seen in PtCEN2-depleted P. tetraurelia, but PtCEN2 was demonstrated to have no overt role in either the initiation or assembly of new basal bodies . Rather, PtCEN2 was shown to regulate the selection of the site and orientation of basal body assembly as well the stability of basal bodies, both of which are critical for proper basal body retention and function [87, 88]. Our data suggest that Cetn2 increases the rate of centriole assembly, and given the requirement for hMps1 in Cetn2 function , perhaps hMps1 is also required for aspects of site selection and maintenance that are dispensable for the actual assembly of centrioles.
An Interesting Twist
Inhibition of hMps1 via chemical genetics and small molecules suggests that it is essential in vertebrates [60, 79–84], and consensus is that its essential function is in the SAC . It is interesting to note that in yeast the SAC itself is not essential, and so represents the dispensable function of yeast Mps1p. In contrast, in vertebrates the SAC is essential and centrosomes themselves are dispensable (at least for the progression of mitosis) . If Mps1 is dispensable for centrosome duplication in vertebrates, perhaps this is because vertebrates evolved to rely on it for the spindle checkpoint, which presumably becomes increasingly important with increasing genomic complexity, and thus evolved mechanisms to replace its function in centrosome duplication.
We may ultimately find that hMps1 is dispensable for centriole assembly. However, that would not dampen our interest in Mps1, and would still leave it in good company. Cdk2 was long assumed to be essential not just for centrosome duplication but for DNA replication as well, yet mice null for Cdk2 are viable  and Cdk2 is dispensable for centrosome duplication . This doesn't mean that Cdk2 is unimportant, and indeed Cdk2 is required for centrosome re-duplication . Likewise, Cetn2, perhaps the most well known centriole marker, is dispensable for centriole assembly [14, 15, 28]. While it is clearly necessary to understand the core evolutionarily conserved centriole assembly pathway, it is also critical to understand how centriole assembly occurs within a human cell when all the components are present. It is also critical to understand the types of defects that might contribute to the appearance of extra centrosomes in tumors, even if those defects involve players that are not essential for the canonical assembly cycle such as Cdk2  and Cetn2 . Indeed, centriole overproduction has proven a useful model system for understanding centriole assembly in general . Regardless of whether centrioles can be assembled in the absence of hMps1, our recent data support the idea that when present it plays multiple roles in centriole assembly. Indeed, even this seems to be conserved from yeast, where Mps1 acts in at least two steps in SPB duplication . Moreover, subtle changes in hMps1 or its regulators can lead to centriole overproduction [28, 29, 31, 47], and although it remains to be demonstrated we presume that this reflects the failure to properly control its functions in the canonical centriole assembly cycle, even if those functions are dispensable.
List of Abbreviations Used
spindle pole body
Monopolar spindles 1
Spindle Assembly Checkpoint
Cyclin A-associated cyclin-dependent kinase 2
Mps1 degradation signal
Ornithine Decarboxylase Antizyme
anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome
Acknowledgements and Funding
The work on centrosomal Mps1, OAZ, and Cetn2 summarized in this review was supported by a seed grant from the Ohio Cancer Research Associates, and NIH R01 GM077311, both to HAF.
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