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Fig. 4 | Cell Division

Fig. 4

From: Curcumin and tumor immune-editing: resurrecting the immune system

Fig. 4

Different strategies of curcumin nano formulation preparation: (1) Liposomes Lipophilic particles are incorporated into the hydrocarbon bilayer whereas hydrophilic molecules are incorporated into their aqueous interiors. (2) Polymeric micelles They contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups and are hence called amphiphiles. They are formed when the concentration of amphiphiles exceeds critical micelle concentration. (3) Polymer nanoparticles Consist of intense matrix structure that can incorporate the pharmacologically active ingredients and has a high-drug loading capacity. (4) Nanogels A core shell polystyrene gel layer structure consisted of inner hydrophobic core that interacted with active pharmacological substances for high-drug yields and PEG analogue outer shell that trigger fast release of preloaded drug. (5) Nanoemulsion Thermodynamically stable dispersion of water and oil, stabilized with active surface film consist of surfactant and cotransfactent. (6) Solid lipid nanoparticles consist of solid lipid core matrix that stabilized by surfactants or emulsifier and solubilize lipophilic substances. (7) Inclusion complex: mixture of active drug ingredients primarily located in the hydrophobic cavity of bulky host molecules such as cyclodextrin. (8) Dendrimer Core–shell nanostructure generally synthesized in layer-by layer fashion where many pharmaceutical active compounds directly associated with stable physical interaction or chemical bonding. (9) Phytosomes: The phospholipid complex, obtained by pure phospholipids containing biological derivatives with active pure ingredients with definite physicochemical and spectroscopic properties. (10) Curcumin nanoparticles These are nanoparticles made from pure curcumin without any carrier conjugates. They are prepared by dissolving pure curcumin in ethanol and homogenization at high pressure with water containing 0.1 % citric acid [86]

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