Phenotype analysis and gonad morphology of san-1(ok1580);bub-3(RNAi) , san-1(ok1580);hcp-1(RNAi) , san-1(ok1580);mdf-2(RNAi) animals. L1 larvae were grown at 20°C for three days before gonad morphology was assayed using DIC microscopy. Phenotypes observed include a larvae arrest or slow growth phenotypes (A). For san-1(ok1580);bub-3(RNAi) or san-1(ok1580);mdf-2(RNAi) animals phenotypes included abnormal cell morphology in the mitotic region of the gonad (white arrow head), abnormal cell morphology in the meiotic region of the gonad (white arrow), and abnormal oocyte morphology (B, black arrow head). Animals could produce sperm (B, black arrows), but the spermatheca often appeared abnormal as indicated by sperm localization. The position of the vulva is indicated by a V. Bar = 25 μm.