Skip to main content


Fig. 3 | Cell Division

Fig. 3

From: Cullin-RING ligases in regulation of autophagy

Fig. 3

A schematic summary of autophagy process and core machineries in autophagosome formation. Autophagy, a sequential process, consists of initiation, autophagosome formation, autophagosome–lysosome fusion, and cargo degradation, followed by recycling of macromolecules. This process is precisely regulated by different sets of ATGs and involves at least four core machineries, including the ULK1 complex, the Beclin-1/Class III PI3K complex, ATG9 and its recycling system, and two ubiquitin-like protein conjugation systems

Back to article page