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Table 1 Characteristics of cancer cell quiescent state-associated microRNAs

From: MicroRNAs’ control of cancer cell dormancy

MicroRNA Cancer type involved/definition used to describe cells studied Method used for quiescent cell identification Target/key biological events regulated References
miR-17-92 Pancreatic cancer/quiescent cancer stem cells Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry, Ki-67 negative cells identification by immunocytochemistry p21, ALK1, and transcription factor TBX3/G0-to-G1 phase transition enhancement [14]
miR-101 Liver cancer/liver cancer stem cell CD13+/CD90 subpopulation Fluorescence activated cell sorting JARID1A, JMJD1B, TP53INP1, EZH2/stem cell pluripotency [15]
miR-126 Chronic myelogenous leukemia/chronic myelogenous leukemia stem cells Fluorescence activated cell sorting PI3K/AKT signaling pathway components/proliferation, apoptosis, and colony formation [29]
miR-190 Osteosarcoma, glioblastoma/dormant cells In vitro proliferation assay based on cellular DNA content measurement, Kaplan–Meier analysis and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry for dormancy models in vivo Nuclear factor I/B, human T cell leukemia virus type I binding protein 3/cell proliferation [13]
miR-200a/200b/429 cluster Breast cancer/low proliferative cells Cell proliferation measured by immunofluorescent detection of anti-histone H3 antibodies Snail, Twist1, Twist2, Zeb1/cell proliferation [17]
miR-200c Osteosarcoma/dormant-tumor-forming cells Kaplan–Meier analysis for survival Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3, hypoxia-induced factor 1α, basic fibroblast growth factor, K-Ras/metastasis [18]
miR-205 Breast cancer/G0 quiescent cancer stem cells Flow cytometry for cell cycle analysis, 5‐bromo‐2′‐deoxyuridine-Ki-67 double immunostaining Bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway target genes (ID1 andID3), and the inhibitor of this pathway, BAMBI/induction of quiescence in cells [19]
miR-221 Acute lymphoblastic leukemia/quiescent cells Cell proliferation evaluation by flow cytometry, p27 immunostaining The cell cycle inhibitor, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (or p27)/cell cycle regulation, sensitization to cytotoxic agents [22]
miR-222 Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, breast cancer/quiescent cells Flow cytometry for cell cycle analysis, 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine staining Cell cycle inhibitor cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B, p27/drug resistance [21, 14]
miR-223 Breast cancer/breast cancer dormant stem cells Flow cytometry for cell cycle analysis, Ki-67 immunostaining Drug resistance enhancement to carboplatin [14]
miR-424 Colon cancer, osteosarcoma/proliferating cancer cells Flow cytometry for cell cycle analysis Increase in the number of G1 cells [25]
miR-503 Colon cancer, osteosarcoma/proliferating cancer cells Flow cytometry for cell cycle analysis Cyclin D, cyclin E, Cdc25A/Increase in the number of G1 cells, cell cycle arrest via targeting M-phase inducer phosphotase [25]
miR-580 Osteosarcoma, glioblastoma, breast cancer, liposarcoma/quiescent cells Tumor volume analysis, proliferation assay based on cellular DNA content measurement, Ki-67 immunostaining Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3, hypoxia-induced factor-1α, basic fibroblast growth factor, K-Ras/induction of antiangiogenic and dormancy promoting pathways EphA5, Angiomotin [16]
miR-588 Osteosarcoma, glioblastoma, breast cancer, liposarcoma/quiescent cells Tumor volume analysis, proliferation assay based on cellular DNA content measurement, Ki-67 immunostaining Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3, hypoxia-induced factor-1α, basic fibroblast growth factor, K-Ras/induction of antiangiogenic and dormancy promoting pathways EphA5, Angiomotin [16]
  1. AKL1 Activin receptor-like kinase 1, PI3K phosphoinositide 3-kinase, ID1/3 isopentenyl-diphosphate Δ-isomerase 1/3, BAMBI bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane bound inhibitor